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The interface between a moving conveyor belt and a work piece can be lubricated using an air driven stream of finely divided droplets of a lubricant composition. Droplets of a preferred size are directed by the air stream onto the conveyor with little waste of lubricant off the conveyor. The lubricant provides a very low coefficient of friction and little or no stress cracking in the containers. Using a low pressure and low flow rate air stream in conjunction with a low flow rate liquid lubricant attains the useful particle size in the lubricant add on spray. The liquid lubricant is sheared by the effect of the air flow creating the desirable droplet size and pattern of lubricant on the conveyor. A food container conveyor device having improved lubricant properties can be lubricated using a lubricant composition that can become ingested by a user from a food or a container for the food, can come into incidental contact or direct content with a food composition, can be incorporated at measurable concentrations into the food, or can be used generally on food conveyor surfaces wherein the food is exposed to the lubricant.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE INVENTION
Belt conveyors can be lubricated with a finely divided distribution of liquid droplets. Preferred lubricants are H-1 qualified. The liquid droplets are produced in the interaction of the aqueous lubricant with a source of motive energy. Such sources of energy can include a spinning disk, an air stream directed across the path of a stream of the lubricant or a stream of air that is directed coaxially with the liquid lubricant. In the latter method, a stream of lubricant is passed through a tubular member surrounded by a second tubular member delivering a flow of air surrounding the flow of liquid. Shear between the air and the liquid lubricant breaks the liquid lubricant up into appropriately sized particles. The liquid droplets produced from the interaction between a liquid lubricant and a source of motive energy, such as a moving air stream. The finely divided distribution of droplets is directed to the conveyor surface at an effective loading. The lubricant provides a desirable coefficient of friction with no wastage of lubricant in the conveyor. The preferred lubricant application apparatus comprises air injection with manifold lubrication injection mechanism that provides for the formation of an even distribution of lubricant droplets with a desired particle size. Even if the lubricant is introduced into the food, the food remains suitable for human consumption
We have found that the problems inherent in conventional aqueous lubrication of conveyor systems used in food packaging and beverage bottling can be substantially improved using a lubricant layer formed from a particulate lubricant on a conveyor surface. The lubricant layer can be continuous or discontinuous and can be maintained at a thickness of less than about 3 millimeters, preferably about 0.0001 to 2 mm, with an add on of lubricant on the surface of less than about 0.02 gms-in−2, preferably about 5×10−4 to 0.02 gms-in−2, most preferably about 2×10−4 to 0.01 gms-in−2. Such a thin lubricating film of the lubricant on the conveyor provides adequate lubrication to the conveyor system but ensures that the lubricant cannot foam, does not flow from the conveyor surface and contacts the absolute minimum surface area of the food container such as the beverage bottle as possible. Such a thin film lubricant maintains significant lubrication while avoiding waste of the lubricant composition and avoiding stress cracking promotion. We have found that one mode of formation of the liquid lubricant compositions of the invention are in the form of an aqueous solution or suspension wherein the aqueous phase comprises about 5 to 95% or 10 to 50 wt % of the lubricant, and the lubricant phase is about 0.01 to 4.8% of the total lubricant composition. The form of an emulsion can be either water in oil or oil in water emulsion. One preferred format of the emulsion is a phase unstable emulsion such that the emulsion separates forming an oil layer on top of a water layer which is then, in turn, contact with the conveyor surface. The methods of the invention can be used to convey virtually any food container on a conveyor line, but is particularly adapted to transporting steel, aluminum cans, cartons, and thermoplastic beverage containers such as polyethylene terephthalate beverage containers. Common PET beverage containers are formed with a petaloid base having a five lobed structure in the base to provide stability to the bottle when it is placed on a surface. The contact with the lubricant on the pentaloid base must be minimized. We have found that using a thin film of lubricant, that less than about 10 to 300 mm2, preferably 20 to 200 mm2 of the surface of the bottle is contacted with lubricant. Certainly, the height of the lubricant in contact with the bottle is less than 3 millimeters. The motion of the conveyor, the tendency of the bottles to rock or move while being conveyed and the other aspects of relative movement at the bottle conveyor interface affect the height of the lubricant on the bottle. The methods of this invention are primarily directed to conveyor operations and do not involve any change in shape of the container arising from forming operations. The desirable coefficient of friction of the conveyor lubricant is about 0.04 to 0.14, preferably about 0.04 to 0.1.
The invention provides a lubricant coating that reduces the coefficient of friction of coated conveyor parts and containers and thereby facilitates movement of containers along a conveyor line. The lubricant compositions used in the invention can optionally contain water or a suitable diluent, as a component or components in the lubricant composition as sold or added just prior to use. The lubricant composition does not require in-line dilution with significant amounts of water, that is, it can be applied undiluted or with relatively modest dilution, e.g., at a water:lubricant ratio of about 0.1:1 to 10:1, about 0.25:1 to 5:1 or about 1:1 to 5:1. In contrast, conventional dilute aqueous lubricants are applied using dilution ratios of about 100:1 to 500:1. The lubricant compositions preferably provide a renewable coating that can be reapplied, if desired, to offset the effects of coating wear. They preferably can be applied while the conveyor is at rest or while it is moving, e.g., at the conveyor's normal operating speed. The lubricant coating preferably is substantially non-dripping, that is, preferably the majority of the lubricant remains on the container or conveyor following application until such time as the lubricant may be deliberately washed away.
The lubricant composition resists loss of lubricating properties in the presence of water or hydrophilic fluids, but can readily be removed from the container or conveyor using conventional aqueous cleaners, without the need for high pressure, mechanical abrasion or the use of aggressive cleaning chemicals. The lubricant composition can provide improved compatibility with plastic conveyor parts and plastic bottles, because the composition does not require inclusion of emulsifiers or other surfactants that can promote stress cracking in plastics such as PET.
A variety of materials can be employed to prepare the lubricated containers and conveyors of the invention, and to carry out the processes of the invention. For example, the lubricant can contain various natural lubricants, petroleum lubricants, synthetic oils and greases. Examples of natural lubricants include vegetable oils, fatty oils, animal fats, and others that are obtained from seeds, plants, fruits, and animal tissue. Examples of petroleum lubricants include mineral oils with various viscosities, petroleum distillates, and petroleum products. Examples of synthetic oils include synthetic hydrocarbons, organic esters, poly(alkylene glycol)s, high molecular weight alcohols, carboxylic acids, phosphate esters, perfluoroalkylpolyethers (PFPE), silicates, silicones such as silicone surfactants, chlorotrifluoroethylene, polyphenyl ethers, polyethylene glycols, oxypolyethylene glycols, copolymers of ethylene and propylene oxide, polyhydroxy compounds and the like. Examples of useful solid lubricants include molybdenum disulfide, boron nitride, graphite, silica particles, silicone gums and particles, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE, Teflon), fluoroethylene-propylene copolymers (FEP), perfluoroalkoxy resins (PFA), ethylene-chloro-trifluoroethylene alternating copolymers (ECTFE), poly (vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF), and the like. The lubricant composition can contain an effective amount of a water-based cleaning agent-removable solid lubricant based on the weight of the lubricant composition. The lubricant composition can also contain a solid lubricant as a suspension in a substantially aqueous or non-aqueous liquid. In such a situation, the amount of solid lubricant can be about 0.1 to 50 weight percent, preferably 0.1 to 50 percent, preferably 0.5 to 20 percent by weight, based on the weight of the composition.
Specific examples of useful lubricants include oleic acid, corn oil, mineral oils available from Vulcan Oil and Chemical Products sold under the “Bacchus” trademark; fluorinated oils and fluorinated greases, available under the trademark “Krytox” from is DuPont Chemicals. Also useful are siloxane fluids available from General Electric silicones, such as SF96-5 and SF 1147 and synthetic oils and their mixture with PTFE available under the trademark “Super Lube” from Synco Chemical. Also, high performance PTFE lubricant products from Shamrock, such as nanoFLON M020™, FluoroSLIP™ 225 and Neptune™ 5031 and polyalkylene glycols from Union Carbide such as UCON™ LB625, and Carbowax™ materials are useful.
A variety of water-miscible silicone materials can be employed in the lubricant compositions, including silicone emulsions (such as emulsions formed from methyl(dimethyl), higher alkyl and aryl silicones; functionalized silicones such as chlorosilanes; amino-, methoxy-, epoxy- and vinyl-substituted siloxanes; and silanols). Suitable silicone emulsions include E2175 high viscosity polydimethylsiloxane (a 60% siloxane emulsion commercially available from Lambent Technologies, Inc.), E2140 FG food grade intermediate viscosity polydimethylsiloxane (a 35% siloxane emulsion commercially available from Lambent Technologies, Inc.), HV490 high molecular weight hydroxy-terminated dimethyl silicone (an anionic 30-60% siloxane emulsion commercially available from Dow Corning Corporation), SM2135 polydimethylsiloxane (a nonionic 50% siloxane emulsion commercially available from GE Silicones) and SM2167 polydimethylsiloxane (a cationic 50% siloxane emulsion commercially available from GE Silicones. Other water-miscible silicone materials include finely divided silicone powders such as the TOSPEARL™ series (commercially available from Toshiba Silicone Co. Ltd.); and silicone surfactants such as SWP30 anionic silicone surfactant, WAXWS-P nonionic silicone surfactant, QUATQ-400M cationic silicone surfactant and 703 specialty silicone surfactant (all commercially available from Lambent Technologies, Inc.). Preferred silicone emulsions typically contain from about 30 wt % % to about 70 wt % water. Non-water-miscible silicone materials (e.g., non-water soluble silicone fluids and non-water-dispersible silicone powders) can also be employed in the lubricant if combined with a suitable emulsifier (e.g., nonionic, anionic or cationic emulsifiers). For applications involving plastic containers (e.g., PET beverage bottles), care should be taken to avoid the use of emulsifiers or other surfactants that promote environmental stress cracking in plastic containers when evaluated using the PET Stress Crack Test set out below. Polydimethylsiloxane emulsions are preferred silicone materials. Preferably the lubricant composition is substantially free of surfactants aside from those that may be required to emulsify the silicone compound sufficiently to form the silicone emulsion.
Preferred amounts for the silicone material, hydrophilic lubricant and optional water or hydrophilic diluent are about 0.05 to about 12 wt %, preferably about 0.05 to less than 5 wt %, of the silicone material (exclusive of any water or other hydrophilic diluent that may be present if the silicone material is, for example, a silicone emulsion), about 0 to about 99.95 wt % of the hydrophilic lubricant, and 0 to about 99.95 wt % of water or hydrophilic diluent. More preferably, the lubricant composition contains about 0.5 to about 4.5 wt % of the silicone material, about 10 to about 98 wt %, preferably about 15 to about 95 wt % of the hydrophilic component lubricant, and about 2 to about 84.5 wt % of water or hydrophilic diluent. Most preferably, the lubricant composition contains about 0.8 to about 4.5 wt % of the silicone material, about 50 to about 85 wt % of the hydrophilic lubricant, and about 11 to about 49.2 wt % of water or hydrophilic diluent for a total of greater than 95% of hydrophilic materials.
The silicone lubricants can be water soluble but are preferably water-dispersible in a cleaning mode. In such cases, the lubricant can be easily removed from the surface, if desired, by, for example, a rinse or other treatment with water. The lubricant, whether water soluble or dispersible or not, is preferably easily removable from the container, conveyor and/or other surfaces in the vicinity, with common or modified detergents, for example, including one or more of surfactants, an alkalinity source, and water-conditioning agents. Useful water soluble or dispersible lubricants include, but are not limited to, polyhydroxy compounds, polymers of one or more of ethylene oxide, propylene oxide, methoxy polyethylene glycol, or an oxyethylene alcohol. Preferably the lubricant is compatible with the beverage intended to be filled into the container. If water is employed in the lubricant compositions, preferably it is deionized water. Other suitable hydrophilic diluents include alcohols such as isopropyl alcohol.
The lubricant coating should be sufficiently thick to provide the desired degree of lubrication, and sufficiently thin to permit economical operation and to discourage drip formation. The lubricant coating thickness preferably is maintained at at least about 0.0001 mm, more preferably about 0.001 to about 2 mm, and most preferably about 0.005 to about 0.5 mm. The lubricant is maintained on the conveyor, free of dripping from the surface. A boarder of greater than about 1 mm preferably more than 1 cm or more is formed between the edge of the lubricant and the edge of the conveyor to maintain the lubricant on the conveyor.
The lubricant compositions preferably have a coefficient of friction (COF) that is less than about 0.14, more preferably less than about 0.1, when evaluated using the Short Track Conveyor Test, as follows: coefficient of friction (COF) measured on a short track conveyor system: The determination of lubricity of the lubricant was measured on a short track conveyor system. The conveyor was equipped with two belts from Rexnord. The belt was Rexnord LF (polyacetal) thermoplastic belt of 3.25″ width and 20 ft long. The lubricant was applied to the conveyor surface evenly. The conveyor system was run at a speed of 100 ft/min. Six 2L bottles filled with beverage were stacked in a rack on the track with a total weight of 16.15 kg. The rack was connected to a strain gauge by a wire. As the belts moved, force was exerted on the strain gauge by the pulling action of the rack on the wire. A computer recorded the pull strength. The coefficient of friction (COF) was calculated on the basis of the measured force and the mass of the bottles and it was averaged from the beginning to the end of the run.
Short Track Conveyor Test
A conveyor system employing a motor-driven 83 mm wide by 6.1-meter long REXNORD™ LF polyacetal thermoplastic conveyor belt is operated at a belt speed of 30.48 meters/minute. Six 2-liter filled PET beverage bottles are stacked in an open-bottomed rack and allowed to rest on the moving belt. The total weight of the rack and bottles is 16.15 Kg. The rack is held in position on the belt by a wire affixed to a stationary strain gauge. The force exerted on the strain gauge during belt operation is recorded using a computer. A thin, even coat of the lubricant composition is applied to the surface of the belt using an applicator made from a conventional bottle wash brush. The belt is allowed to run for 5-60 minutes during which time a consistently low COF is observed. The COF is calculated on the basis of the measured force and the mass of the bottles, averaged over the run duration. Next, 60 ml of warm water is sprayed over a 30 second period onto the conveyor surface, just upstream from the rack (under the wire). Application of the lubricant is continued for another 5 minutes, and the average COF is noted.
The containers of the invention can be made from virtually any thermoplastic that can have any degree of stress cracking in the plastic when filled with a beverage or under pressure from beverage contents. Such thermoplastic materials can include polyethylene, polypropylene, polycarbonate, polyvinylchloride, polystyrene and other such polymerized materials. The polymers of greatest interest include polyethylene terephthalate, polyethylene naphthalate, polycarbonate and other similar polymers. Copolymers of interest include copolymers and ethylene and dibasic acids such as terephthalic acid, naphthenic acid and others. Further, containers made of polymer alloys or blends such as blended PET and PEN, blended PVC and polyacrylates along with other alloys and blends can be useful. Further, containers comprising two or more laminated polymer layers can be useful. Any of the thermoplastic materials mentioned above can be used in each of the layers of the bottle. One useful material that can avoid stress cracking while maintaining high concentrations of carbonation in a carbonated beverage can include a PET/PVOH laminate, a PEN/PVOH laminate, a polycarbonate/PET laminate, a polystyrene/PET laminate and others. Further, additional layers can be introduced for the purpose of achieving additional properties in the container structure. For example, a layer can be added to the laminate that protects the beverage contained within the bottle from reaching residual monomer from the polyester, the PVC or other plastic. A laminate layer can be introduced to the exterior of the bottle for the formation of a printable surface. In such a way a useful bottle material can be made using a variety of materials in a variety of structures including single component bottles, polymer alloys and blends and laminates of various size and composition.
Containers include beverage containers; food containers; household or commercial cleaning product containers; and containers for oils, antifreeze or other industrial fluids. The containers can be made of a wide variety of materials including glasses; plastics (e.g., polyolefins such as polyethylene and polypropylene; polystyrenes; polyesters such as PET and polyethylene naphthalate (PEN); polyamides, polycarbonates; and mixtures or copolymers thereof); metals (e.g., aluminum, tin or steel); papers (e.g., untreated, treated, waxed or other coated papers); ceramics; and laminates or composites of two or more of these materials (e.g., laminates of PET, PEN or mixtures thereof with another plastic material). The containers can have a variety of sizes and forms, including cartons (e.g., waxed cartons or TETRAPACK™ boxes), cans, bottles and the like. Although any desired portion of the container can be coated with the lubricant composition, the lubricant composition preferably is applied only to parts of the container that will come into contact with the conveyor or with other containers. Preferably, the lubricant composition is not applied to portions of thermoplastic containers that are prone to stress cracking. In a preferred embodiment of the invention, the lubricant composition is applied to the crystalline foot portion of a blow-molded, footed PET container (or to one or more portions of a conveyor that will contact such foot portion) without applying significant quantities of lubricant composition to the amorphous center base portion of the container. Also, the lubricant composition preferably is not applied to portions of a container that might later be gripped by a user holding the container, or, if so applied, is preferably removed from such portion prior to shipment and sale of the container. For some such applications the lubricant composition preferably is applied to the conveyor rather than to the container, in order to limit the extent to which the container might later become slippery in actual use. These polymer materials can be used for making virtually any container that can be thermoformed, blow molded or shaped in conventional thermoplastic shaping operations. Included in the description of containers of the invention are containers for carbonated beverages such as colas, fruit flavored drinks, root beers, ginger ales, carbonated water, etc. Also included are containers for malt beverages such as beers, ales, porters, stouts, etc. Additionally, containers for dairy products such as whole, 2% or skim milk are included along with containers for juices, Koolaid® (and other reconstituted drinks), tea, Gatoraid® or other sport drinks, neutraceutical drinks and still (non-carbonated) water. Further, food containers for flowable but viscous or non-Newtonian foods such as catsup, mustard, mayonnaise, applesauce, yogurt, syrups, honey, etc. are within the scope of the invention. The containers of the invention can be virtually any size including (e.g.) five gallon water bottles, one gallon milk chugs or containers, two liter carbonated beverage containers, twenty ounce water bottles, pint or one half pint yogurt containers and others. Such beverage containers can be of various designs. Designs can be entirely utilitarian with a shape useful simply for filling transportation, sales and delivery. Alternatively, the beverage containers can be shaped arbitrarily with designs adapted for marketing of the beverage including the classic “coke” shape, any other decorative, trademarked, distinctive, or other design can be incorporated into the bottle exterior. A first aspect of the invention comprises a lubricant formulated using an aqueous carrier using concentrations of materials that are designed or adapted for direct application to the conveyor container contact surface without further dilution with an aqueous stream. A second aspect of the invention comprises a lubricant comprising an aqueous carrier and a concentration of active materials that are designed or adapted for dilution with water to form a dilute lubricant material. In this aspect, the lubricants are typically formulated for dilution with from about 100 to about 500 parts of aqueous diluent per each 1 part of the formulated lubricant material. A further aspect of the invention comprises a lubricant having a formulation dispersed in an oleophilic carrier which can be applied directly to the interface between a container and a conveyor surface for lubricating purposes. Such a lubricant oleophilic formulation can be applied neat (without dilution). Still another aspect of the invention comprises a lubricant comprising an oleophilic carrier in a concentration of active materials that are designed and adapted for dilution with a diluent which can comprise an oleophilic liquid or a hydrophilic liquid such as water for application purposes.
In another aspect of the invention, the methods of the invention can be used to convey a number of different types of containers or packages. Such containers include cans, bottles or cartons and boxes. Cans typically include both steel and aluminum cans that are typically conveyed with an open top filled with a food product such as stew, soup, beverage or other dried, aqueous or composite food product. Bottles include glass or thermoplastic bottles including polyethylene terephthalate, polycarbonate, polyethylene, polypropylene or other common resin materials. Lastly, cartons or boxes can include materials made from cellulosic webs that can be used in a corrugated form, a sheet-like form, or a coated material in which the coatings comprises a wax, a resin or other printed or non-printed materials.
The lubricants of the invention can be formulated in a liquid solution form. Alternatively, the lubricants can be made by dispersing an oleophilic phase in an aqueous or hydrophilic phase. Alternatively, the lubricants can be formulated by dispersing an aqueous or hydrophilic phase in an oleophilic phase. Commonly, the diluents or continuous phase materials of the invention include either an aqueous phase which can comprise suitable potable water or a solution of H-1 materials in such potable water diluents. The oleophilic diluents can comprise typically available edible oils. The lubricants of the invention can take the form of a single phase of the formulation. Such single phase can comprise a solution of oleophilic materials in an oleophilic medium or can comprise aqueous soluble components in an aqueous medium.
The aqueous or oleophilic diluents contemplated above can be combined with a variety of lubricant materials. Lubricant materials can be used as is or in combination with a variety of other functional additives for their known uses. The following non-exclusive list provides direction for selecting H-1 ingredients. This list of ingredients should be read in concert with 21 C.F.R. §§ 1.172, 1.178 and 1.182 which are expressly incorporated by reference herein for a description of foodgrade or H-1 qualified materials and their uses.
Anoxomer; L-Ascorbic acid; Ascorbyl palmitate; Ascorbyl stearate; K-Butyl hydroquinone; Calcium ascorbate; Calcium lactate; Calcium phosphate (dibasic); Clove and Coffee bean extract; Disodium citrate; distearyl thiodipropionate; Dodecyl galleate; Edetic acid; Erythorbic acid; Ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline; Eucalyptus oil; Fumaric acid; Gallic acid; Gentian extract; Gualec gum; n-Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Heptyl paraben; Hesperetin; 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-dl-t-butanol; Isopropyl citrate; Lecithin; Nordihydrogueretic acid; Octyl gallate; Oryzanol; Phosphatidyicholine; Phosphoric acid; Pimento extract; Potassium citrate; Potassium metabisulfite; Potassium phosphate; Potassium sulfite; Propylene glycol; Rapeseed oil; Rice bran extract; Sage extract; Sodium ascorbete; Sodium carbonate; Sodium citrate; Sodium erythorbate; Sodium hypophosphite; Sodium metabisulfite; Sodium sulfite; Sodium tartrate; sodium thiosulfate (anhyd); Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate; Stannous chloride (anhyd); Stannous chloride (dihydrate); Sucrose; L-Tartaric acid; d-a-Tocopheral; dl-a-Tocophenol; 2,4,5-Trihydroxybutyrophenol.
Albumin macro aggregates; Aluminum caprylate; Aluminum stearate; Arabinogalactan Calcium stearate; Caprylic/capric acid; Carboxymethylcellulose sodium; Carboxymethyl cellulose; Carrageenan; Cellulose; Dextrin; Food starch modified; Gluconolactone; Hydrogenated stearic acid; Hydrogenated vegetable oil; Magnesium stearate; Methoxyethanol; Methylcellulose; Microcrystalline cellulose; Mineral oil; Nonoynol-7; Oleic acid; Pea protein concentrate; various liquid and thickened solid polyethylene glycol compositions PEG-4; PEG-6; PEG-8; PEG-9; PEG-12; PEG-14; PEG-16; PEG-24; PEG-32; PEG-40; PEG-75; PEG-100; PEG-150; PEG-200; Polyethylene glycol; Potassium oleate; Potassium polymetaphosphate; Potassium stearate; Potassium tripolyphosphate; Rennet Sodium cassinate; Sodium hexametaphosphate; Sodium laurate; Sodium metaphosposphate; Sodium myristate; Sodium oleate; Sodium palmitate; Sodium stearate; Soy acid; Soy protein; Tallow acid; Trimyriatin; Whey, dry; Whey protein conc; Whey, reduced lactose; Whey, reduced minerals; Zanthan gum.
Bleaching Agents or Decolorizing Agents
Acetone peroxide Ammonium persulfate; Azodicarbonamide; Benzoyl peroxide Carbon, activated; Catalase; Chloromethylated aminated styrene divinylbenzene resin ammonium chloride; H2O2.BrO3; Lipoxidase; Sodium hydrosulfite; Sodium hypochlorite; Sodium metabisulfite; Sodium sulfite; Sulfur dioxide.
Acacia; Acetylated hydrogenated coconut glycerides; Acetylated hydrogenated cottonseed glyceride; Acetylated hydrogenated soybean oil glyceride; Acetylated lard glyceride; Acetylated mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Acetylated tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Acyl lactylates; Agar; Albumen; Algin; Alginic acid; Aluminum caprylate; Aluminum stearate; Ammonium alginate; Ammonium carrageenan; Ammonium furcelleran; Ammonium phosphate, dibasic; Arabinogalactan; Ascorbyl palmitate; Bakers yeast extract; Bentonite Calcium carrageenan; Calcium citrate; Calcium dihydrogen pyrophosphate; Calcium furcelleran; Calcium lactate; Calcium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; Calcium phosphate tribasic; Calcium/sodium stearoyl lactylate; Calcium stearate; Calcium stearoyl lactylate; Canola oil glyceride; Capric triglyceride; Caprylic/capric triglyceride; Capryllic triglyceride; Carrageenan; Cellulose; Cholesterol; Cholic acid; Coconut oil; Corn glycerides; Corn oil; Cottonseed glyceride; Cottonseed oil; Damer; Diacetyl tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides; Disodium citrate; Disodium phosphate, dihydrate; Disodium pyrophosphate; Furcelleran; Glyceryl caprate; Glyceryl caprylate/caprate; Glyceryl citrate/lactate/linoleate/oleate; Glyceryl cocoate; Glyceryl cottonseed oil; Glyceryl dioleate; Glyceryl dioleste SE; Glyceryl disterate; Glyceryl distearate SE; Glyceryl d/tribehenate; Glyceryl lactoesters; Glyceryl lactoeleate; Glyceryl lactopalmitate/stearate; Glyceryl laurate; Glyceryl laurate SE; Glyceryl linoleate; Glyceryl mono/dilaurate; Glyceryl mono/dioleate; Glyceryl mono/distearate; Glyceryl mono/distearate-palmitate; Glyceryl oleate; Glyceryl oleate SE; Glyceryl palmitate; Glyceryl palmitate lactate; Glyceryl palmitate stearate; Glyceryl ricinoleate; Glyceryl ricinoleate SE; Glyceryl soyate; Glyceryl stearate; Glyceryl stearate citrate; Glyceryl state lactate; Glyceryl stearate SE; Guar gum Gum ghelti; Hydrogenated cottonseed glyceride; Hydrogenated lard glyceride; Hydrogenated lard glycerides; Hydrogenated palm glyceride; Hydrogenated rapeseed oil; Hydrogenated soybean glycerides; Hydrogenated soy glyceride; Hydrogenated tallow glyceride; Hydrogenated tallow glyceride citrate; Hydrogenated tallow glyceride lactate; Hydrogenated tallow glycerides; Hydrogenated vegetable glyceride; Hydrogenated vegetable glycerides; Hydrogenated vegetable oil. Hydroxylated lecithin; Hydroxypropylcellulose; Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; Karaya gum; Lactic acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Lactylic esters of fatty acids; Lard; Lard glyceride; Lard glycerides; Lecithin; Locust bean gum; Magnesium stearate; Methylcellulose; Methyl ethyl cellulose; Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Mono- and diglycerides, sodium phosphate derives; Octenyl succinic anhydride; Oleth-23; Palm glyceride; Palm oil; Palm oil sucroglyceride; Peanut glycerides; Peanut oil; Pea protein concentrate; Pectin; PEG-20 dilaurate; PEG-7 glyceryl cocoate; PEG-20 glyceryl stearate; PEG-40 sorbitan hexataliate; PEG-20 sorbitan tritaliate; PEG-6 stearate; PEG-8 stearate; PEG-40 stearate; Pentapotassium triphosphate; Phosphatidylcholine; Polyglyceryl-10 decasterate; Polyglyceryl-10 decastearate; Polyglyceryl-2 dilsostearate; Polyglyceryl-3 dilsostearate; Polyglyceryl-5 dilsostearate; Polyglyceryl-3 dioleate; Polyglyceryl-6 dioleate; Polyglyceryl-10 dioleate; Polyglyceryl-10 dipalmitate; Polyglyceryl-2 distearate; Polyglyceryl-3 distearate; Polyglyceryl-5 distearate; Polyglyceryl-6 distearate; Polyglyceryl-10 distearate; Polyglyceryl-8 hexaoleate; Polyglyceryl-10 hexaoleate; Polyglyceryl-10 isostearate; Polyglycaryl-10 laurate; Polyglyceryl-10 linoleate; Polyglyceryl-10 myristate; Polyglyceryl-2 oleate; Polyglyceryl-3 oleate; Polyglyceryl-4 oleate; Polyglyceryl-6 oleate; Polyglyceryl-8 oleate; Polyglyceryl-4 pentaoleate; Polyglyceryl-10 pentaoleate; Polyglyceryl-4 pentastearate; Polyglyceryl polyyricinoleate; Polyglyceryl-2 sesquioleate; Polyglyceryl-2 stearate; Polyglyceryl-3 stearate; Polyglyceryl-4 stearate; Polyglyceryl-8 stearate; Polyglyceryl-10 stearate; Polyglyceryl-10 tetraoleate; Polyglyceryl-2 tetrastearate; Polyglyceryl-2 trisosterate; Polyglyceryl-4 tristearate; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 21, Potassium alginate; Potassium citrate; Potassium furcelleran; Potassium oleate; Potassium phosphate dibasic; Potassium phosphate tribasic; Potassium polymetaphosphate; Potassium sodium tartrate anhyd; Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate; Potassium tripolyphosphate; Propylane glycol; Propylene glycol alginate; Propylene glycol dicaprylate/dicaprate; Propylene glycol esters of fatty acids; Propylene glycol laurate; Propylene glycol laurate SE; Propylane glycol monodistearate; Propylene glycol oleate; Propylene glycol oleate SE; Propylene glycol palmitate; Propylene glycol ricinoleate; Propylene glycol ricinoleate SE; Propylene glycol ricinoleate SE; Propylene glycol stearate; Propylene glycol stearate SE; Rapeseed oil glyceride; Saccharose distearate; Saccharose mono/distearate; Saccharose palmitate; Safflower glyceride; Safflower oil; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Sodium aluminum phosphate acid; Sodium aluminum phosphate, basic; Sodium carrageenan; Sodium caseinate; Sodium furcellaran; Sodium hexametaphosphate; Sodium hypophosphite; Sodium laurate; Sodium lauryl sulfate; Sodium metaphosphate; Sodium phosphate dibasic; Sodium phosphate tribasic; Sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate; Sodium stearate; Sodium stearoyl lactylate; Sodium tartrate; Sorbitan caprylate; Sorbitan myristate; Sorbitan palmitate; Sorbitan sesquioleate; Sorbitan sesquistearate; Sorbitan stearate; Sorbitan trioleate; Sorbitan tristearate; Sorbitan tritallate; Soybean oil; Soy protein; Steareth-20; Stearyl-2-lactyle acid; Succinylated monoglycerides; Succistearin; Sucrose dilaurata; Sucrose distearate; Sucrose erucate; Sucrose fatty acid esters; Sucrose laurate; Sucrose myristate; Sucrose oleate; Sucrose palmitate; Sucrose polylaurate; Sucrose polylinoleate; Sucrose polyoleate; Sucrose polystearate; Sucrose stearate; Sucrose tetrastearate triacetate; Sucrose tribehenete; Sucrose tristerate; Sunflower seed oil; Sunflower seed oil glyceride; Sunflower seed oil glycerides; Superglycerinated hydrogenated rapeseed oil; Tallow glyceride; Tallow glycerides; Tartaric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides, Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium pyrophosphate; Tragacanth gum; Triaodium citrate; Xanthan gum.
Acetylated hydrogenated coconut glycerides; Acetylated Hydrogenated soybean oil glyceride; Acetylated mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Beeswax; C8-10 fatty acid triglyceride; Calcium carbonate; Calcium silicate; Calcium stearate; Candle wax; Capric acid; Caprylic acid; Caprylic/capric acid; Carnauba; Castor oil; Coconut oil; Cottonseed oil; Dimethicone; Ethylene distearamide; Glyceryl dioleate; Glyceryl dioleate SE; Glyceryl distearate; Glyceryl distearate; SE: Glyceryl laurate SE; Glyceryl oleate SE; Glyceryl ricinoleate; SE; Glyceryl stearate; Glyceryl tricaprylate/caprate; Glyceryl trienanthate; Hydrogenated sperm oil; Hydrogenated stearic acid; Hydrogenated vegetable glycerides phosphate; Hydrogenated vegetable oil; Lecithin; Linoleamide; Magnesium carbonate hydroxide; Magnesium oxide; Magnesium silicate; Magnesium stearate; D-Mannitol; Microcrystalline cellulose; Microcrystalline wax; Mineral oil; Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Mono- and diglycerides; sodium phosphate derivatives; Oleamide; Oleyl alcohol; Oxystearin; Palmitamide; Palmitic acid; Palm oil; PEG-4; PEG-8; PEG-9; PEG-12; PEG-14; PEG-16; PEG-20; PEG-32; PEG-40; PEG-75; PEG-100; PEG-150; PEG-200; PEG-6 oleate; PEG-8 oleate; Petrolatum; Polyethylene glycol; Rice bran wax; Sodium glyceryl oleate phosphate; Soy acid; Soybean oil; Stearamide; Stearic acid; Sucrose dilaurate; Sucrose distearate; Sucrose laurate; Sucrose myristate; Sucrose polylaurate; Sucrose polylinoleate; Sucrose polyoleate; Sucrose stearate; Sucrose tetrastearate triecetate; Sucrose tribahanate; Talc; Trimyristin; Tristearin.
Oxidizing Agents or Reducing Agents
NaO4; Benzoyl peroxide; Calcium peroxide; Catalase; L-Cystaine; ClO2; H2O2; KOH Sodium thiosulfate anhyd; Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate; Stannous chloride anhyd.
Buffers, pH Modifiers
Ammonia diphosphate; Ammonium alum; Ammonium bicarbonate; Ammonium carbonate; Ammonium isovalerate; Ammonium phosphate; Ammonium phosphate, dibasic; Calcium acetate; Calcium chloride; Calcium citrate; Calcium gluconate; Calcium hydroxide; Calcium lactate; Calcium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; Calcium pyrophosphate; Calcium sulfate; Carbon dioxide; Citric acid; Cyclamic acid; Disodium citrate; Disodium phosphate; dihydrate; Disodium succinate; Fumaric acid; D-Gluconic acid; Gluconolactone; Glycine; Hydrochloric acid; N-Hydroxysuccinic acid; a-Ketoglutaric acid; Lactic acid; Magnesium carbonate; Magnesium carbonate hydroxide; Magnesium hydroxide; Magnesium oxide; Magnesium phosphate; dibasic; Magnesium phosphate; tribasic Pentapotassium triphosphate; Potassium acetate; Potassium alum dodecahydrate; Potassium bicarbonate; Potassium carbonate; Potassium chloride; Potassium citrate; KOH; Potassium lactate; Potassium phosphate; Potassium phosphate dibasic; Potassium phosphate tribasic; Potassium polymetaphosphate; Potassium sodium tartrate anhyd; Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate; Sodium acetate trihydrate; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Sodium alum; Sodium aluminum phosphate acidic; Sodium bicarbonate; Sodium bisulfate; Sodium bisulfate solid; Sodium carbonate; Sodium citrate; Sodium diacetate; Sodium fumerate; Sodium lactate; Sodium metaphosphate; Sodium phosphate; Sodium phosphate dibasic; Sodium phosphate tribasic; Sodium phosphate tribasic dodecahydrate; Sodium sesquicarbonate; Sodium succinate; Sodium tartrate; Succinic acid; Succinic anhydride; Sulfuric acid; Tannic acid; L-Tartaric acid; Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate; Trisodium citrate.
Agar; Alcohol; Ammonium persulfate; Anoxomer; L-Ascorbic acid; Ascorbyl palmitate Benzylparaben; Butylparaben; Calcium acetate; Calcium ascorbate; Calcium banzoate; Calcium bromide; Calcium chloride; Calcium citrate; Calcium disodium EDTA; Calcium formate; Calcium propionate; Calcium sorbate; Caprylic acid; Carbon dioxide; Catalese; Cetalkonium chloride; Chlorine; Corlander oil; Dehydroacetic acid; 2,2-Dibromo-3-nitrilopropionamide; Diethyl fumarate; Dilauryl thlodipropionate; Dimethyl dicarbonate; Dimethyl fumarate; Disodium cyanodithiomidocarbonate; Distearyl citrate Erythorbic acid; 8-Ethoxy-1,2-dihydro-2,2,4-trimethylquinoline; Ethylenediaminie; Ethyl fumarate; Ethyl paraben; Glucose oxidase; Gluteral; Glyceryl cottonseed oil n-Heptyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Heptyl paraben; Hexamethylene tetramine; Hydrogen peroxide; 4-Hydroxymethyl-2,6-di-t-butylphenol; Imazall; Isobutyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Isopropyl p-hydroxybenzoate; Lauralkonium chloride; Methyl fumarate; Myristalkonium chloride; Nabam; Natarmycin; Nisin; Potassium acid tartrate; Potassium benzoate; Potassium bleufite; Potassium butyl paraben; Potassium ethylparaben; Potassium metabisulfite; Potassium N-methyldithiocarbonate; Potassium nitrate; Potassium nitrite; Potassium propylparaben; Potassium sorbate; Potassium sulfite; Potassium trichlorophenate; Propylparaben; Relinol; Retinyl acetate; Salicylic acid; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Sodium ascorbate; Sodium benzoate; Sodium bisulfate solid; Sodium bisulfite; Sodium butylparaben; Sodium chloride; Sodium dehydroacetate; Sodium diacetate; Sodium dimethyldithiocarbanate; Sodium formate; Sodium hypophosphite; Sodium metabisulfite; Sodium methylparaben; Sodium nitrate; Sodium nitrite; Sodium pentachlorophenate; Sodium propylparaben; Sodium sorbate; Sodium sulfite; Sorbic acid; Stannous chloride anhyd; Stearalkonium chloride; Stearyl citrate; Sucrose; Sucrose erucate; Sulfur dioxide; n-Tetradecyl dimethyl ethybenzyl ammonium chloride; Thiabendazole; d-a-Tocopherol; Tragecanth gum; 2,4,5-Trihydroxybutyrophenone; Tristearyl citrate; Zinc chloride.
Acacia; Acetone; Acrylates/acrylamide copolymer; Agar; Albumen; Alcohol; Algin; Alginic acid; Ammonia; Ammonium alum; Ammonium chloride; Ammonium hydroxide; Ammonium phosphate, dibasic; Bentonite; Bromelain; Calcium acetate; Calcium chloride; Calcium glutonate; Calcium hydroxide; Calcium silicate; Calcium/sodium stearoyl lactylate; Calcium sulfate; Candida guillermonda; Candida lipolytica; Caramel; Carbohydraes; Carbohydrase-cellilase; Carbohydrase from ; Carbohydrase from ; Carbon, activated; Carbon balck; Carbon dioxide; Carnauba; Casein; Catalase; Cellulase; Cellulose; Chlorine; Chloromethylated aminated styrene-divinylbanzene resin; Cobalt; Cocamide DEA; Cocoa butter substitute; Coconut oil; Copper; Corn oil; Cottonseed flour, partially defatted, cooked; Cottonseed oil; Cupric sulfate (anhydrous); Cupric sulfate (pentahydrate); cyclodextrin; Dextrin; Dialkyl dimethyl ammonium chloride; Distomaceious earth; Diethylaminoethyl cellulose; Dimethylamine/epichlorohydrin copolymer; Dioctyl sodium sulfosuccinate.
Ascorbyl palmitate; Calcium acetate; Calcium chloride; Calcium citrate; Calcium diacetate; Calcium disodium EDTA; Calcium gluconate; Calcium hexametaphosphate; Calcium phosphate monobasic monohydrate; Calcium phylate; Citric acid; Disodium citrate; Disodium pyrophosphate; Distearyl citrate; Gluconolactone; Isopropyl citrate; Oxystearin; Pentapotassium triphosphate; Pentasodium triphosphate; Potassium citrate; Potassium D-gluconate; Potassium phosphate; Potassium phosphate tribasic; Potassium sodium tartrate anhyd; Potassium sodium tartrate tetrahydrate; Sodium acid phosphate; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Sodium carbonate; Sodium diacetate; Sodium hexametaphosphate; Sodium metaphosphate; Sodium phosphate; Sodium phosphate dibasic; Sodium phosphate tribasic; Sodium tartrate; Sodium thiosulfate anhyd; Sodium thiosulfate pentahydrate; Starch; Succinic acid; Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium pyrophosphate; Triethyl citrate; Tristearyl citrate.
Citric acid esters of mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Glyceryl caprylate; Glyceryl caprylate/caprate; Isocetyl alcohol; Monoglyceride citrate; Nonoxynol-16-14 PEG-6 dilaurate; PEG-20 dilaurate; PEG-32 dilaurate; PEG-75 dilaurate; PEG-150 dilaurate; PEG-6 dioleate; PEG-20 dioleate; PEG-32 dioleate; PEG-75 dioleate; PEG-150 dioleate; PEG-6 distearate; PEG-20 distearate; PEG-32 distearate; PEG-75 distearate; PEG-20 glyceryl isostearate; PEG-30 glyceryl isostearate; PEG-20 glyceryl laurate; PEG-30 glyceryl laurate; PEG-20 glyceryl oleate; PEG-30 glyceryl oleate; PEG-15 glyceryl ricinoleate; PEG-30 glyceryl stearate; PEG-25 glyceryl trioleate; PEG-50 hydrogenated castor oil; PEG-60 hydrogenated castor oil; PEG-32 laurate; PEG-8 oleate; PEG-32 oleate; PEG-40 sorbitan dilisostearate; PEG-80 sorbitan laurate; PEG-20 sorbitan tritaltate; PEG-32 stearate; PEG-75 stearate; Poloxamer 105; Poloxamer 108; Poloxamer 123; Poloxamer 124; Poloxamer 181; Poloxamer 182; Poloxamer 184; Poloxamer 185; Poloxamer 188; Poloxamer 212; Poloxamer 215; Poloxamer 217; Poloxamer 231; Poloxamer 234; Poloxamer 235; Poloxamer 237; Poloxamer 238; Poloxamer 282; Poloxamer 284; Poloxamer 288; Poloxamer 331; Poloxamer 333; Poloxamer 334; Poloxamer 335; Poloxamer 338; Poloxamer 401; Poloamer 402; Poloxamer 403; Poloxamer 407; Polyglyceryl-10 hexaoleate; Polysorbate 40; Polysorbate 61; Polysorbate 80; Polysorbate 81; Polysorbate 85; Sorbitan laurate; Sucrose distearate; Sucrose stearate; Triolein.
Algin; Alumina; Ammoniated glycyrrhizin; Ammonium caseinate; Calcium lignosulfonate; Calcium silicate; Calcium/sodium stearoyl lactylate; Carboxymethyl methylcellulose; Cellulose; Citric acid; Cobalt sulfate (ous); Glyceryl caprylate; Glyceryl cottonseed oil; Glyceryl dioleate; Glyceryl dioleate SE; Glyceryl distearate; Glyceryl distearate SE; Glyceryl isostearate; Glyceryl laurate; Glyceryl laurate SE; Glyceryl oleate; Glyceryl oleate SE; Glyceryl ricinoleate; Glyceryl ricinoleate SE; Glyceryl stearate SE; Guar gum; Hydrogenated lard glyceride; Hydrogenated lard glycerides; Hydrogenated palm glyceride; Hydrogenated soybean glycerides; Hydrogenated soy glyceride; Hydrogenated tallow glyceride; Hydrogenated tallow glycerides; Hydrogenated vegetable glycerides; Hydroxypropylcellulose; Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose; Lactylated fatty acid esters of glycerol and propylene glycol; Lactylic esters of fatty acids; Lard glycerides; Licorice; Licorice extract; Licorice root extract; Methyl ethyl cellulose; Methyl glucoside-coconut oil ester; Microcrystalline cellulose; Mono- and diglycerides of fatty acids; Mono- and diglycerides; sodium phosphate derivatives; Nonoxynol-10; Nonoxynol-11 Palm glyceride; Palm oil sucroglyceride; Pea protein concentrate; PEG-32 dilaurate; PEG-75 dilaurate; PEG-150 dilaurate; PEG-6 dioleate; PEG-20 dioleate; PEG-32 dioleate; PEG-75 dioleate; PEG-150 dioleate; PEG-6 distearate; PEG-20 distearate; PEG-32 distearate; PEG-75 distearate; PEG-32 laurate; PEG-6 oleate; PEG-8 oleate; PEG-32 oleate; PEG-75 oleate; PEG-80 sorbitan laurate; PEG-20 sorbitan tritalate; PEG-32 stearate; PEG-75 stearate; Phosphatidylcholine; Poloxamer 105; Poloxamer 122; Poloxamer 123; Poloxamer 124; Poloxamer 181; Poloxamer 182; Poloxamer 183; Poloxamer 184; Poloxamer 185; Poloxamer 188; Poloxamer 331; Poloxamer 333; Poloxamer 334; Poloxamer 335; Poloxamer 338; Poloxamer 401; Poloxamer 402; Poloxamer 403; Poloxamer 407; Polyethylene glycol; Polyglyceryl-10 dipalmitate; Polyglyceryl-10 hexaoleate; Polyglyceryl-10 stearate; Polysorbate 20; Polysorbate 40; Polysorbate 60; Polysorbate 80; Polysorbate 85; Poly(1-vinyl-2-pyrrolidinone) homopolymer; Potassium acid tartrate; Potassium persulfate; Potassium tripolyphosphate; Propylene glycol; Propylene glycol alginate; PVP Quilfala Simethicone; Sodium acid pyrophosphate; Sodium decylbenzane sulfonate; Sodium glyceryl oleate phosphate; Sodium lauryl sulfate; Sodium stearoyl lactylate; Sorbitan sesquiloleate; Sorbitan tritaliate; Sucrose dilaurate; Sucrose distearate; Sucrose erucate; Sucrose laurate; Sucrose myristate; Sucrose stearate; Sucrose tribehanate; Sunflower seed oil glycerides Tallow glycerides; Tetrapotassium pyrophosphate; Tetrasodium pyrophosphate Xanthan gum; Yucca.
The following Examples of formulations exemplify the inventive concepts and provide a best mode.
The following materials can be made:
The materials of Examples 5-6, comprising an H-1 silicone emulsion were blended such that the silicone was in the form of a microemulsion in a continuous aqueous phase containing glycerine. Examples 3 and 4 were agitated until the white oil uniformly dispersed in the continuous aqueous phase containing glycerin.
The product of Example 1 was tested for COF. FIG. 1 is a graphical representation of the friction data arising from the testing done with the Lubricant of Example 1. The results are as follows:
The determination of lubricity (Coefficient of friction (COF) of the lubricant was measured on a short track conveyor system. The conveyor was equipped with two belts from Rexnord. The belt was Rexnord LF (polyacetal) thermoplastic belt of 3.25″ width and 20 ft long. The lubricant was applied to the dry conveyor surface evenly with a bottle wash brush. The conveyor system was run at a speed of 100 ft/min. Six 2 L bottles filled with beverage were stacked in a rack on the track with a total weight of 16.15 kg. The rack was connected to a strain gauge by a wire. As the belts moved, force was exerted on the strain gauge by the pulling action of the rack on the wire. A computer recorded the pull strength.
The belt is allowed to run for about 15 minutes during which time a consistently low COF is observed. The COF is calculated on the basis of the measured force and the mass of the bottles, averaged over the run duration. The lubricant of Example 1 was applied to a moving conveyor at four positions that varied along the length of the conveyor belt. At the first station A, a relatively larger amount of lubricant was added to the conveyor to ensure adequate lubrication of the interface between the bottles and the conveyor belt. At stations B, C and D, relatively less amounts of lubricant was added to the conveyor to maintain adequate lubrication. The application apparatus was monitored to measure consistency of application of the lubricant. As shown in the following table, the apparatus of the invention applied a controlled, but effective, amount of lubricant to the conveyor belt in a controlled effective add-on amount. This table demonstrates the ability of the equipment of the invention to add relatively larger amounts of lubricant up to 3 grams of lubricant per minute down to a relatively small amount of lubricant, less than 0.4 gram of lubricant per minute where desired and maintain the lubricant add-on at a consistent amount over an extended period of time. FIG. 6 is a graphical representation of the lubricant add-on data from this table.
In a similar experiment to the work leading to the consistency data of FIG. 6, the frictional character of the spray on technique of the invention was tested. The frictional charater of the Rexnord belt was measured. A lubricant similar to that of Example 1 was applied with a conventional brush teqnique. Lastly the lubricant was applied as described in a small particle spray. The frictional results are in FIG. 7 showing a substantial advantage for the spray on technique. In the figure the friction as measured by COF drops form 0.55 in the brush mode to 0.45 in the spray mode. The unlubricated belt measured about 0.6. This advantage appears to result from the nature of the lubricating films formed by the spray. Such a frictional reduction permits increased conveyor speeds, reduced lubricant use and improved product.
DETAILED DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIG. 1 is a depiction of one embodiment of an apparatus to generate the finely divided particulates of lubricants of the invention. In FIG. 1, a conveyor is contacted with a finely divided distribution of lubricant in air which falls onto the conveyor leaving, at a minimum, a distribution of a pattern of droplets on the moving conveyor . The conveyor can obtain either a continuous thin film of lubricant for the divided pattern of lubricant droplets. The divided particulates of lubricant in air is produced by a mechanism comprising a manifold , a lubricant supply and an air supply . Within the manifold, the air, at a defined but surprisingly low pressure and flow rate, exits a nozzle (not shown) having a diameter of less than about 0.5 inch to create a flow of air through the manifold . The lubricant flows through conduit into fitting and through a lubricant nozzle to create a stream of the lubricant. Within the manifold, the lubricant flow is directed into the air flow. At the interface, between the air flow and the lubricant flow, the shear on the lubricant liquid caused by the incidents of the air stream causes the relatively large flow or stream of lubricant to be broken into particles of the appropriate size and distribution in the air flow. The finely divided particulates exit the apparatus through nozzle and are directed onto the conveyor under the influence of gravity. The particulates are sized such that the particulates, under the influence of gravity, are directed to the conveyor surface. Little, if any, lubricant is lost into the air in the form of mist or fog that can be supported by air and directed away from the lubricant surface. Further, the apparatus is operated in a manner such that virtually all the lubricant leaving the nozzle forms a lubricating layer on the conveyor surface.
FIG. 2 is an alternate embodiment of the apparatus producing the finely divided stream of lubricant particulates. In FIG. 2, a moving conveyor obtains either a continuous film or a distributed pattern of lubricant to convey work pieces (not shown). In the embodiment of FIG. 2, the liquid lubricant passes through conduit into a line that forms relatively large droplets of liquid lubricant. An air stream passes through conduit into manifold and passes through nozzle creating an air flow which contacts liquid droplet forming the finely divided distribution of droplets . The flow rates of the lubricant and air are configured such that virtually all the finely divided lubricant is directed to the conveyor surface in the form of the continuous film or the finely divided distribution .
FIGS. 3 and 4 demonstrate data obtained from the conveyor tests described in the body of the specification. In FIG. 3, a formula comprising 77.24 wt % of a 98% active glycerin, 2.05% of Lambert E-2175 silicone emulsion and about 20.71 wt % of deionized water were blended and applied using the spray methods of the invention to the test conveyor device as described. In FIG. 3, a graph is shown with an initial trace representing the absence of lubricant and a relatively high friction environment. After the application of the lubricant for 20 seconds, the coefficient of friction drops substantially. As the lubricant is added incrementally in 10 and 40 second additions, the coefficient of friction drops with the addition of the lubricant.
In FIG. 4, the effective lubricant volume on coefficient of friction is shown. As the amount of lubricant applied increases, the coefficient of friction drops. There appears to be a limit coefficient of friction that is reached between 0.04 and 0.06 coefficient of friction.
FIG. 5 shows the relationship between a lubricant spray device of the invention and a bottle conveyor system. In FIG. 5, a spray apparatus is shown containing conveyor supporting bottles . Onto the conveyor is sprayed the lubricant composition (not shown). The lubricant is produced by carefully metering liquid lubricant from lubricant outlet . As the lubricant is metered from outlet , it contacts an air stream (not shown) exiting air outlet . The air from outlet contacts the lub from lub outlet , the air shears the lub into a uniform spray of fine droplets that contacts the conveyor . The amount of lubricant exiting lub outlet is controlled by an adjustable valve that can be adjusted for controlled add-on. The lubricant outlet and the air outlet are mounted on a bracket positioned above the conveyor . The bracket is positioned such that the interaction between the lubricant leaving the lub outlet and the air leaving the air outlet produces an even distribution of droplets over the conveyor . Such positioning is obtainable using a bendable bracket or a flexible member . In FIG. 5, the lubricant leaves nozzle at an angle that departs from a line drawn normal to the surface of the conveyor. Similarly, the air leaving air outlet exits the outlet at an angle that is not parallel with the surface of the conveyor. In FIG. 5 is shown an angle alpha which angle comprises the difference between a line drawn normal to the surface of the conveyor and the angle of the discharge opening of the lubricant outlet . Angle beta is also shown in FIG. 5 which angle represents the difference between the surface of the conveyor and the line drawn through the air outlet . The interaction between the air and the lubricant provides a droplet of the correct size while the positioning of the outlets and above the conveyor at the appropriate angle provides a substantially uniform add-on of spray lubricant to the load bearing surface of the conveyor .
In an experiment to compare coefficient of friction between bottle and conveyor using various lubricant technologies, the conveyor was lubricated using conventional lubricant additive techniques. Care was taken to lubricate the conveyor in the manner associated with the conventional techniques while the spray on was sprayed on as described above. Under normal conventional operating conditions, the conventional lubricant obtained greater than 0.6 coefficient of friction, the brush on application obtained greater than 0.55 coefficient of friction while the spray on touchless technology obtained a coefficient of friction of about 0.45.
BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE DRAWINGS
FIGS. 1 and 2 are alternate embodiments of apparatus that can develop and apply the appropriately sized finely divided particulates of the lubricant of the invention to an appropriately sized conveyor.
FIGS. 3 and 4 are graphical representations of coefficient of friction between a PET bottle and conveyors under various conditions of lubricant add on. In both Figures, the coefficient of friction between the bottle and conveyor is reduced to acceptable operating limits with minimal lubricant add on.
FIG. 5 is an alternate embodiment of apparatus that can develop and apply the appropriately sized finely divided particulates of the lubricant of the invention to an appropriately sized conveyor.
FIG. 6 is a graph of data showing the consistent add-on of lubricant over a period of days at varying add-on amounts and positions on a conveyor.
FIG. 7 is a bar graph representing the advantages obtained using the spray on technology compared to conventional application including a brushed application. The spray on method achieves superior coefficient of friction when compared to conventional techniques.
This application is a continuation of application Ser. No. 09/838,969, filed Apr. 20, 2001, now U.S. Pat. No. 6,576,298, which is a continuation-in-part of U.S. application Ser. No. 09/738,387, filed on Dec. 15, 2000, now abandoned, and also claims benefit to provisional application Ser. No. 60/230,662, filed on Sep. 7, 2000, which application(s) are incorporated herein by reference.
1. A method to form a finely divided distribution of lubricant droplets on a conveyor conveying a container, the method comprising: (a) establishing a flow of air at a pressure of about 0.1 to 5 psi air with an intersecting stream lubricant at a flow rate of about 0.5 to 5 milliliters-sec−1to form a finely divided flow of lubricant with a particle size of about 500 to 2500 microns; and (b) controlling the air flow and lubricant stream such that the lubricant is directed onto at least a portion of the conveyor at an add on rate of about 2×10−4 gm-in−2 to 0.01 gm-in−2 and establishing a coefficient of function between the conveyor and workpiece of less than about 0.14, the lubricant comprising a food additive material.
2. The method of claim 1 wherein lubricant is added at a flow rate of about 0.1 to 20 milliliters-sec−1.
3. The method of claim 1 wherein with a particle size of the lubricant is about 100 to 5000 microns.
4. The method of claim 1 wherein with a diameter of the aperture is less than 0.05 inch.
5. The method of claim 1 wherein at least 90% of the lubricant is directed onto the conveyor surface.
6. The method of claim 1 wherein the lubricant is added to the conveyor at an add on rate of about 5×10−4 gms-in−2 to 0.05 gm-in−2.
7. The method of claim 1 wherein lubricant layer is less than 3 mm in thickness end the conveyor width is about 10 centimeters to 4 meters.
8. The method of claim 1 wherein the lubricant forms a pattern of lubricant leaving an unlubricated border of greater than about 1 millimeter on the conveyor.
9. The method of claim 1 wherein the work piece comprises a glass, plastic, metal or paper container.
10. The method of claim 1 wherein the plastic container comprises a polyester beverage container.
11. The method of claim 1 wherein the lubricant flow comprises about 11 to 22 milliliters per hour and the air flow is at an angle parallel to the conveyor.
12. The method of claim 1 wherein the lubricant flow comprises about 0.5 to 5 milliliters per hour and is at an angle that departs from the surface of the conveyor by at least 5°.
13. The method of claim 1 wherein the add-on rate of the lubricant is about 2×10−4 gms-in−2 to 0.01 gms-in−2.
14. The method of claim 1 wherein the stream of lubricant comprises two or more lubricant streams in the form of droplets.
15. The method of claim 1 wherein the lubricant pattern is substantially uniform in that no arbitrary selected square centimeter of conveyor surface comprises more than 125% of the average lubricant add on a conveyor surface of about 5 square meters.
16. The method of claim 1 wherein the particle size of the resulting finely divided flow of lubricant is about 500 to 2500 microns.
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